Vitamin B-1 Myth


Plants manufacture vitamins and hormones used to regulate their growth.  In many instances, supplying these hormones, auxins and vitamins to plants can stimulate the growth of roots and foliage, regulate growth, internodal spacing and promote flowering.  While many of these occur naturally in plants, man-made versions which have the effect of naturally occurring plant hormones [...]

Flower Parts and Functions


Have you ever wondered what makes a flower a flower?  Did you know that the flower is actually made up of female and male parts?  Yes, that is correct.  Many flowers have male parts and female parts.  We’ll start with the male part first. The male part of the flower is known as the stamen.  The [...]

Anatomy of the Leaf


The leaf is a good deal more complex than many would assume.  Their daily functions are spectacular and give us a lot of insight as to how a plant uses leaves to manufacture complex enzymes, proteins, vitamins, sugars, etc. from the  nutrients it takes up through its roots.  We’ll start with the epidermis.  The epidermis is [...]

Anatomy of the Leaf pt. 2


The epidermis of the leaf has unique features that aid in the survival of the plant.  We are going to take a look into some of these unique features inside the lower epidermis of the leaf, starting with the outer protective layer of the epidermis.  It’s waxy to help prevent water loss, and that wax or [...]

The Difference between Chlorophyll A & B and Photosynthesis Overview


Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a naturally occurring process that takes place in plants, algae and even some forms of bacteria.  They utlize the sun’s energy to convert CO2 into carbohydrates. Photosynthesis is an essential part of life on Earth.  During photosynthesis CO2 expelled by animals, humans and burning hydrocarbons is absorbed and oxygen is released.  There are [...]

Function of the Phloem


The phloem collects photoassimilates in green leaves, distributes them in the plant and supplies the plant organs.  The phloem is specially designed for loading, long‐distance transport and unloading of assimilates.  The conducting cells are called sieve elements.  These cells are highly modified to create a simple pathway of contiguous living cells, whose long‐term viability is maintained [...]

Getting Rid of Root Rot


Aren’t these roots in the picture beautiful?  We wish we lived in a world where all roots looked this way, but sadly we don’t.  Because we live in the real world, houseplants, trees, plants, or shrubs are often overwatered; their leaves start to get dull, turn yellow and the plants will show other signs of stress. [...]

How Plant Roots Absorb Nutrients


Roots are the primary way in which plants acquire nutrients.  Plant roots can penetrate to significant depths and are branched so that they can explore large volumes of soil.  Some nutrients are only “weakly bound” in the soil, and can flow towards the root surface when a plant uses water.  Other nutrients can be tightly bound [...]

How Plant Roots Absorb Water


Plants absorb water through their entire surface - roots, stems and leaves. However, the majority of water is absorbed by root hairs. Root hairs are thin-walled uni-cellular outgrowths of epidermis. They are in close contact with the thin film of water surrounding the soil particles. The cell wall of the root hair is permeable to water [...]

Root Stucture Overview


Roots are vital to plant life in large variety of ways. Not only do they provide stability and nutrient storage, they’re also the main source of acquiring nutrients and water. Typical roots contain many different working parts that work together to sustain and grow the plant. We have laid out each of the basic parts of [...]